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Empirical legal scholarship was once a novel and contested participant in the legal academy. In the twenty-first century, it has emerged as an active and valued player. That is not to say that empirical research has replaced doctrinal scholarship, or even that an empirical perspective is uncontroversial as a foundation for conclusions about how the legal system ought to operate. The current legal landscape, however, does reflect that empirical legal scholarship is now recognized as a legitimate contributor to our understanding of law and the operation and effects of legal institutions.