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A measles epidemic in California, that then spread to other states, focused national attention on the many children who have been vaccinated against communicable diseases. This Essay focuses on the constitutional issues concerning compulsory vaccination laws and argues that every state should require compulsory vaccination of all children, unless there is a medical reason why the child should not be vaccinated. There should be no exception to the compulsory vaccination requirement on account of the parents’ religion or conscience, or for any reason other than medical necessity. The government’s interest in protecting children and preventing the spread of communicable disease justifies mandatory vaccinations for all children in the United States.