The United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement1 expressed the mutual desire of Canadian and American exporters to secure permanent access to the other country's market. Of particular concern to Canada during the FTA negotiations was the perceived need to reduce the impact of such non-tariff barriers to trade as American antidumping (AD) and countervailing duty (CVD) laws. It was recognized that eliminating tariff levels under the FTA would only nominally benefit Canadian exporters if American non-tariff barriers were allowed to retain their existing status. Chapter 19 of the FTA was created to address this Canadian concern.
John M. Mercury,
Chapter 19 of the United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement 1989-95: A Check on Administered Protection?,
Nw. J. Int'l L. & Bus.